Data Cabling and Networking Specialists

Copper

Twisted pair cabling is a form of wiring in which two conductors (two halves of a single circuit) are wound together for the purposes of cancelling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources; for instance, electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, and crosstalk between neighboring pairs.

Twisting wires decreases interference because the loop area between the wires (which determines the magnetic coupling into the signal) is reduced. In balanced pair operation, the two wires typically carry equal and opposite signals (differential mode) which are combined by addition at the destination. The common-mode noise from the two wires (mostly) cancel each other in this addition because the two wires have similar amounts of EMI that are 180 degrees out of phase. This results in the same effect as subtraction. Differential mode also reduces electromagnetic radiation from the cable, along with the attenuation that it causes.

The twist rate (also called pitch of the twist, usually defined in twists per meter) makes up part of the specification for a given type of cable. Where pairs are not twisted, one member of the pair may be closer to the source than the other, and thus exposed to slightly different induced electromotive force (EMF).

Where twist rates are equal, the same conductors of different pairs may repeatedly lie next to each other, partially undoing the benefits of differential mode. For this reason it is commonly specified that, at least for cables containing small numbers of pairs, the twist rates must differ.

In contrast to FTP (foiled twisted pair) and STP (shielded twisted pair) cabling, UTP (unshielded twisted pair) cable is not surrounded by any shielding. It is the primary wire type for telephone usage and is very common for computer networking, especially as patch cables or temporary network connections due to the high flexibility of the cables.

UTP cables are found in many ethernet networks and telephone systems. For indoor telephone applications, UTP is often grouped into sets of 25 pairs according to a standard 25-pair color code originally developed by AT&T. A typical subset of these colors (white/blue, blue/white, white/orange, orange/white) shows up in most UTP cables.

For urban outdoor telephone cables containing hundreds or thousands of pairs, the cable is divided into smaller but identical bundles. Each bundle consists of twisted pairs that have different twist rates. The bundles are in turn twisted together to make up the cable. Pairs having the same twist rate within the cable can still experience some degree of crosstalk. Wire pairs are selected carefully to minimize crosstalk within a large cable.

UTP cable is also the most common cable used in computer networking. UTP cables are often called ethernet cables after Ethernet, the most common data networking standard that utilizes UTP cables. Twisted pair cabling is often used in data networks for short and medium length connections because of its relatively lower costs compared to optical fibre and coaxial cable.

UTP is also finding increasing use in video applications, primarily in security cameras. Many middle to high-end cameras include a UTP output with setscrew terminals. This is made possible by the fact that UTP cable bandwidth has improved to match the baseband of television signals. While the video recorder most likely still has unbalanced BNC connectors for standard coaxial cable, a balun is used to convert from 100-ohm balanced UTP to 75-ohm unbalanced. A balun can also be used at the camera end for ones without a UTP output. Only one pair is necessary for each video signal.